Causes of Acute Diarrhea

In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Acute Diarrhea. So, let’s get started.

Causes

Infective cause (90% cases) include:

  • Virus e.g. rotavirus, norovirus, cytomegalovirus, viral hepatitis.
  • Bacterial e.g. Enterotoxin-induced i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, B.cereus, C. perfringens, E.coli, V.cholera. Cytotoxin-induced i.e. E.coli, toxic shock syndrome. Mucosal invasion i.e. Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Traveller’s diarrhea.
  • Parasitic i.e. Giardia, E.histolytica, Cryptosporidium, Cyclophora.

Non-infective causes (10% cases) include:

  • Drugs e.g. laxative, digitalis, ampicillin.
  • Ischemic colitis
  • Pseudomembranous colitis
  • Diverticulitis
  • Graft vs host disease
  • Toxin-induced diarrhea i.e. organophosphorus, insecticide, amanita, mushroom, and seafood.
  • Food allergy/intolerance
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Tumor Markers

In this article, we will discuss Tumor Markers. So, let’s get started.

Tumor Markers

A tumor marker is a biomarker found in blood, urine or body tissues/fluids that are used in oncology in order to detect the presence of cancer. There are different tumor markers present and their elevated levels are suggestive of a particular disease or cancer.

Following are a few examples of Tumor markers and associated cancer:

  • CA15-3: Breast cancer, cancers of prostate, lung, and ovary.
  • CA19-9: Pancreatic cancer, cancers of colon, stomach, and bile duct.
  • CA27-29: Breast cancer, cancers of colon, stomach, kidney, lung, ovary, pancreas, uterus, and liver.
  • NSE: Neuroblastoma or small cell lung cancer.
  • CA125: Ovarian cancer, cancers of uterus, cervix, pancreas, liver, colon, breast, lung, and digestive tract.
  • Immunoglobin: Lymphoma and Leukemia
  • CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen): Colorectal cancer
  • AFP (Alpha-fetoprotein): Liver, ovary, or testicular cancer or germ-cell tumor
  • Tumor M2-PK: Colorectal cancer
  • Thymidine kinase: Lung cancer
  • Glial fibrillary acidic protein: Glioma, astrocytoma.
  • PSA (Prostate-specific antigen): Prostate cancer