In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Acute Diarrhea. So, let’s get started.
Infective cause (90% cases) include:
- Virus e.g. rotavirus, norovirus, cytomegalovirus, viral hepatitis.
- Bacterial e.g. Enterotoxin-induced i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, B.cereus, C. perfringens, E.coli, V.cholera. Cytotoxin-induced i.e. E.coli, toxic shock syndrome. Mucosal invasion i.e. Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Traveller’s diarrhea.
- Parasitic i.e. Giardia, E.histolytica, Cryptosporidium, Cyclophora.
Non-infective causes (10% cases) include:
- Drugs e.g. laxative, digitalis, ampicillin.
- Ischemic colitis
- Pseudomembranous colitis
- Graft vs host disease
- Toxin-induced diarrhea i.e. organophosphorus, insecticide, amanita, mushroom, and seafood.
- Food allergy/intolerance
In this article, we will discuss Tumor Markers. So, let’s get started.
A tumor marker is a biomarker found in blood, urine or body tissues/fluids that are used in oncology in order to detect the presence of cancer. There are different tumor markers present and their elevated levels are suggestive of a particular disease or cancer.
Following are a few examples of Tumor markers and associated cancer:
- CA15-3: Breast cancer, cancers of prostate, lung, and ovary.
- CA19-9: Pancreatic cancer, cancers of colon, stomach, and bile duct.
- CA27-29: Breast cancer, cancers of colon, stomach, kidney, lung, ovary, pancreas, uterus, and liver.
- NSE: Neuroblastoma or small cell lung cancer.
- CA125: Ovarian cancer, cancers of uterus, cervix, pancreas, liver, colon, breast, lung, and digestive tract.
- Immunoglobin: Lymphoma and Leukemia
- CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen): Colorectal cancer
- AFP (Alpha-fetoprotein): Liver, ovary, or testicular cancer or germ-cell tumor
- Tumor M2-PK: Colorectal cancer
- Thymidine kinase: Lung cancer
- Glial fibrillary acidic protein: Glioma, astrocytoma.
- PSA (Prostate-specific antigen): Prostate cancer