Clinical Features of Cor Pulmonale

In this article, we will discuss the Clinical Features of Cor Pulmonale. So, let’s get started.

Clinical Features

Productive cough

Dyspnea

Chest discomfort

Headache

Abdominal pain

Lower extremity swelling

Ascites

Physical Signs include:

Orthopnea

The patient sits with elbows supported on a table and legs dangling by the side of the chest

Pursed lip breathing and cyanosis (presents in patients with COPD with acute exacerbation)

Periorbital edema

Jugular venous distention (raised JVP) and ‘VY’ (wave) collapse due to tricuspid regurgitation

Peripheral edema

Systemic Signs

Respiratory system may show signs of COPD (barrel-shaped chest, restricted chest movements and expansion, hyper-resonant note and vesicular breathing with prolonged expiration, muffled breath sounds)

Signs of RV hypertrophy or failure e.g. parasternal heave, loud P2, midsystolic and early diastolic (Graham-steel) murmur and pansystolic or holosystolic murmur of tricuspid regurgitation (Carvallo’s sign) may be present.

Abdominal distention may be present along with tender hepatomegaly. Hepatojugular reflex may be present.

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The Principles of Training (Exercise)

In this article, we will discuss the Principles of Training and The FITT Principle of Prescribing Aerobic Exercise. So, let’s get started.

Principles

Overload principle: An exercise overload specific to the activity must be applied to enhance the physiological improvement and bring a training response e.g. athletes, cardiac patient training program.

Specificity principle: Specific adaptations bring specific training effects e.g. swimming, bicycling, running, etc.

Individual difference principle: A person’s relative fitness level is important at the start of training and it is unrealistic to expect the same outcome for everyone with particular training.

Reversibility principle: Detraining occurs if a person terminates exercise program.

The FITT Principle of Prescribing Aerobic Exercise

Frequency: Number of days per week dedicated to exercise sessions.

Intensity: It determines how hard a person works in order to do then activity. It can be defined on the basis of either absolute or a relative scale. Absolute intensity refers to the amount of energy expended per min of activity while relative intensity takes a person’s level of exercise capacity or cardiorespiratory fitness into consideration to assess the level of effort.

Time: The length of time in which an activity or exercise is performed. Duration is generally expressed in minutes.

Type: The mode of exercise performed.