Modified Ashworth Scale

In this article, we will discuss the Modified Ashworth Scale. So, let’s get started.

Modified Ashworth Scale

Modified Ashworth Scale is used as a simple measure of Spasticity (muscle tone).

0 – No increase in muscle tone

1 – Slight increase in muscle tone, manifested by a catch or by minimal resistance at the end range of motion when the affected part moves in flexion or extension.

1+ – Slight increase in muscle tone, manifested by a catch, followed by minimal resistance throughout the remainder range of motion.

2 – More marked increase in muscle tone through most of the range of motion, but the affected part/parts easily moved.

3 – Considerable increase in muscle tone, passive movement becomes difficult

4 – Affected part/parts rigid in flexion or extension.

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Pathophysiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

In this article, we will discuss the Pathophysiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary (COPD). So, let’s get started.

Pathophysiology

Airflow obstruction (both large and small airways), hyperinflation due to air-trapping resulting in large voluminous lungs and inadequate gas exchange leading to hypoxemia and hypercapnia which are the most frequently encountered changes that constitute the clinical picture of COPD. A persistent reduction in the expiratory flow rate is the hallmark of COPD. An increase in residual volume, ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity, uneven ventilation, and ventilation-perfusion mismatch occur in COPD. Changes in the large airways (bronchitis) produce cough and sputum while changes in the small airways and alveoli are responsible for hypoxemia and hypercapnia. In most cases both bronchitis and emphysema are present but their relative contribution to obstruction varies from person to person.