Causes of Asphyxia

In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Asphyxia. So, let’s get started

Asphyxia refers to an airway obstruction leading to less or non-delivery of atmospheric oxygen to the lungs resulting in carbon-di-oxide retention. Asphyxia can be caused due to mechanical or non-mechanical obstructions.

Causes

Mechanical causes

Covering of face (e.g. plastic bag)

Gag or pad smothering (closing of the external respiratory orifice by hand or by other means)

Gagging

Food or foreign body obstruction (choking)

Throttling (compression of the neck manually)

Hanging or strangulation

Drowning

Traumatic asphyxia

Non-mechanical causes

Diseases such as Diptheria, infectious mononucleosis, H.influenzae

Rupture of aortic aneurysm in air passages

Hemoptysis in pulmonary tuberculosis

Erosion of bronchus by a tubercular gland

Laryngeal edema because of steam inhalation, ingestion of irritant substances, drug allergies, and poisons

Retropharyngeal edema

Laryngeal or bronchial outgrowths

Non-penetrating injury to the front of the neck

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Stages of Osteosarcoma

In this article, we will discuss the various Stages of Osteosarcoma. So, let’s get started.

Firstly, we will grade the tumor (cancer) in terms of histopathology (cancerous cells).

GX: The tumor grade cannot be identified

G1: The cancer cells are well differentiated (low-grade)

G2: The cancer cells are moderately differentiated (high-grade)

G3: The cancer cells are poorly differentiated (high-grade)

Stages

Stage IA: The tumor is low grade or cannot be graded and the size is 8 cm or smaller. It has not spread to any lymph node or other parts of the body.

Stage IB: The tumor is low grade or cannot be graded and the size of the tumor is larger than 8 cm or there are more than 1 separate tumors in the primary bone site. It has not spread to any lymph node or other parts of the body.

Stage IIA: The tumor is high-grade and the size is 8 cm or smaller. It has not spread to any lymph node or to other parts of the body.

Stage IIB: The tumor is high-grade and the size is larger than 8 cm. It has not spread to any lymph node or to other parts of the body.

Stage III: There are multiple high-grade tumors in the primary bone site, but has not spread to any lymph nodes or to other parts of the body.

Stage IVA: The tumor is of any size or grade and has spread to the lung(s).

Stage IVB: The tumor is of any size or grade and has spread to the lymph nodes or the tumor is of any size or grade and has spread to another bone or organ besides the lung.

(There are no stage grouping for primary bone cancer in the spine or pelvis)

Original and primary source: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, Eighth Edition (2017), published by Springer International Publishing