Causes of Type II Respiratory Failure

In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Type II Respiratory Failure. So, let’s get started.

Causes

Respiratory causes

Severe acute asthma

Pulmonary embolism

Inhaled foreign body

Laryngeal edema

Multiple fractured ribs, flail chest

Chronic bronchitis (COPD)

Terminally ill patients

Progressive respiratory disease

Kyphoscoliosis (severe chest deformity)

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (Pickwickian syndrome)

Sleep-apnea syndrome

Respiratory muscles paralysis

Sputum retention syndrome

Extrarespiratory causes

Drug (narcotics) overdose

Brainstem infarction

GB syndrome

Metabolic alkalosis

Infections

Myasthenia gravis

Eaton-Lambert syndrome

Myxoedema

Heart failure

Source: Emergency Medicine by SN Chugh and Ashima Chugh

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Classification of Myocardial Infarction (MI)

In this article, we will discuss the Classification of Myocardial Infarction (MI). So, let’s get started.

Classification

Type 1 – Spontaneous MI – It is related to ischemia due to a primary coronary event such as plaque rupture, ulceration, fissuring, erosion or dissection resulting in coronary thrombosis

Type 2 – Supply/Demand mismatch – MI secondary to ischemia due to either increased oxygen demand or decreased oxygen supply e.g. coronary artery spasm, coronary embolism, anemia, arrhythmia, hypertension or hypotension.

Type 3 – Suspected MI-related death – Sudden unexpected cardiac death often with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction.

Type 4a – PCI related MI (percutaneous coronary intervention) – Rise in cardiac biomarkers accompanied by symptoms along with electrographic, angiographic or imaging evidence of ischemia after PCI (MI associated with PCI).

Type 4b – Stent thrombosis – Confirmed stent thrombosis in the context of ischemia and dynamic cardiac biomarkers changes (MI associated with stent thrombosis).

Type 5 – CABG related MI (coronary artery bypass graft) – Rise in cardiac biomarkers accompanied by electrographic, angiographic or imaging evidence of ischemia after CABG (MI associated with CABG).