Clinical features of Type II Respiratory Failure

In this article, we will discuss about Clinical features of Type II Respiratory Failure. So, let’s get started.

Type II Respiratory Failure is defined as the failure of the lungs to maintain an adequate alveolar ventilation resulting in rise in partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) above 50 mmHg. There is always hypoxemia associated with hypercapnia.

Clinical Features

Dyspnea

Mental Confusion

Anxiety

Tachypnea

Tachycardia

Restlessness

Cyanosis

Hypertension

Cardiac arrhythmia

Disorientation, delirium

Somnolence

CO2 narcosis

Flapping tremors

Headache

Papilloedema

Bounding pulses

Source: Emergency Medicine by SN Chugh and Ashima Chugh

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Causes of Bronchiectasis

In this article, we will discuss various Causes of Bronchiectasis. So, let’s get started.

Causes

Idiopathic

Any obstruction in the airway such as aspiration of foreign particles, tumor mass, compression due to adjacent lymphadenopathy, stenotic airway, congenital underdevelopment of the airway or bronchial atresia.

Infection (bacterial, nontuberculous mycobacteria, etc)

Immunodeficiency (hypogammaglobinemia, HIV infection, bronchiolitis obliterans post lung transplantation)

Genetic causes (cystic fibrosis, Kartagener’s syndrome, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency)

Auto-immune or rheumatologic causes such as Sjogren syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease

Immune-mediated disease such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

Yellow-nail syndrome

Recurrent aspiration

Post radiation fibrosis or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (causes traction bronchiectasis)