Macrolide

In this article, we will discuss about Macrolide. So, let’s gets started.

Definition

Macrolide is a class of antibiotic which are effective against Gram-positive bacteria (excluding enterococci) and limited Gram-negative bacteria, it is also effective against Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Treponema pallidum, Campylobacter spp., Bordella pertusis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Legionella spp., Borella spp., Chlamydophila pneumoniae and it includes following drugs as approved by US FDA:-

Azithromycin

Clarithromycin

Erythromycin

Fidoximycin

Mechanism of Action

Macrolide primarily has a bacteriostatic action; however, at higher concentration it may have bacteriocidal action. It acts by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis by blocking 50S ribosomal subunit. It prevents enzymatic activity of peptidyltransferase thereby preventing addition of growing peptide attached to tRNA to next amino acid.

Drug interaction

Macrolide if taken with colchicine leads to colchicine toxicity symptoms includes GI upset, fever, myalgia, pancytopenia, and organ failure. It is not advisable to take combination of macrolide and statin as it leads to debilitating myopathy.

Indication

First line indication for:-

Pertusis (Erythromycin)

Community-acquired pneumonia (Erythromycin, its alternate is Roxithromycin)

H.pylori infection (Clarithromycin)

Acute non-specific urethritis (Azithromycin)

Chlamydia infection (Azithromycin)

Second line indication for:-

Cellulitis (Erythromycin)

Mastitis (Erythromycin)

Syphilis (Erythromycin)

Traveller’s diarrhea (Azithromycin)

Pelvic inflammatory disease (Azithromycin)

Adverse effects

GI upset such as abdominal pain, cramp, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea

Note: Antibiotics and other medications should always be taken as prescribed by physician.

Advertisements
Advertisements

Sign and Symptoms of Acute Pancreatitis

In this article, we will discuss about the Sign and Symptoms of acute pancreatitis. So, let’s gets started.

Sign and Symptoms

Severe and abrupt epigastric (upper abdominal) pain which commonly radiates to the back. Pain can also be dull, boring in character and is deep seated. Pain alleviates with knee flexion in sitting position or knee flexion in supine position.

Nausea and vomiting

Abdominal distention, tenderness, guarding, and rigidity along with absent bowel sounds

Low grade fever along with restlessness and anxiety

Chest examination reveals rales, atelectasis, pleural effusion with elevated level of amylase in pleural fluid. Signs of pneumonitis or ARDS may also be present.

Mild jaundice

Grey-turner’s sign (brown discoloration of the flank), and Cullen’s sign (bluish-brown discoloration of the periumbilical region)

Erythematous skin nodules

A palpable mass may also be present.