Flexor retinaculum of hand

In this article we will discuss about Flexor retinaculum of hand. So let’s get started.

Flexor retinaculum of hand

It is a rectangular shape strong fibrous band consisting of two surfaces and four borders. It is attached radial side to scaphoid and trapezium bone and on ulna side to hook of hamate and pisiform bone. Ulnar artery, ulnar nerve and cutaneous branch of median nerve passes over the flexor retinaculum. Palmar carpal ligament and palmar aponeurosis runs deeper through it. Flexor carpi radialis is present on the radial side, thr tendon of palmaris longus and flexor carpi ulnaris is attached to the surface of the flexor retinaculum and short muscles of thumb and little finger originates from the flexor retinaculum. Flexor retinaculum forms the roof of carpel tunnel and median nerve passes over the flexor retinaculum so, clinically when median nerve gets compressed due to inflammation of the carpel tunnel it is known as carpel tunnel syndrome.

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Anconeus muscle

In this article we will discuss about Anconeus muscle. So let’s get started.

Anconeus muscle

Anconeus muscle originates from the lateral epicondyle of humerus and gets inserted into the lateral surface of olecranon process of the ulna and superior proximal part of the ulna. It is innervated by radial nerve and blood supply is through posterior interrosseus artery and deep brachial artery. It’s main action is extension of forearm.

Subscapularis muscle

In this article we will discuss about Subscapularis muscle. So let’s get started.

Subscapularis muscle

It is one of the muscle of the Rotator Cuff. It originates from the Subscapular fossa present in the anterior part of the scapula and inserts at the lesser tuberosity of the humerus. It is innervated by upper and lower Subscapular nerve and artery supply is through the subscapular artery. It’s chief action includes adduction and internal rotation of the shoulder. Common pathology of this muscle is known as Subscapular Tendinitis.

Aase syndrome or Aase-Smith syndrome

In this article we will discuss about Aase syndrome or Aase-Smith syndrome. So let’s get started.

It is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disease characterized by anemia and musculoskeletal deformities. It is named after American paediatrician Jon Morton Aase and David Weyhe Smith who described it in 1968. Symptomatically characterized by slow growth, pale skin, delayed closure of fontanelles, narrow shoulders, triple jointed thumbs, absent or small knuckles, decreased skin crease at interphalangeal joints (fingers), congenital contractures, cleft palate, deformed ears and droopy eyelids. Treatment includes frequent blood transfusion, Prednisone ( contraindicated in infancy) and bone marrow transplant if other treatment does not work.

Cotard’s Syndrome

In this article we will briefly discuss about Cotard’s Syndrome. So let’s get started.

Cotard’s Syndrome

It is also known as Walking Corpse Syndrome. It is a rare mental disorder in which the affected person feels as if they are dead, do not exist, are putrefying or have lost blood or internal organs. In 1880, neurologist Jules Cotard described it as “The delirium of Negation”. Delusion of negation is the main symptom, patient denies their own existence, body part or portion of a body part. It exists in three stages viz. (a) Germination Stage (b) Blooming Stage (c) Chronic Stage. The germination stage is characterized by symptoms of psychotic depression and hypochondria, the blooming stage is characterized by full development of syndrome and delusion of negation and the chronic stage is characterized by severe delusion along with chronic depression. Treatment includes antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs and mood stabilizers. ECT is the most common treatment used and it is more effective than pharmacotherapy in depressed patients.